I discovered the “defect” @malm hahaha … I imagine everyone will find it strange but it was the “hicolor”
In several installations the terminal showed a list of missing hicolor icon files and I had to contunate, until then I was not having problems running the programs, but I decided to remove the Gimp to check for the existence of duplicate files as was suggested by you and @PackRat and to my surprise the Gimp was the first to have the installation irregular, I could not execute it, I deleted the hicolor folder and it was rebuilt but the error continued, I removed the standard icons and Adwaita did not solve the reinstallation, I could only copy the folder of a live installation, replace all related folders and the problem when restarting has been solved, now I can rename any .desktop file without problems!
I do not know exactly what the connection between the iconic icons is and the fact that I can not rename the desktop, but now I do not need to open the .desktop to edit, I do the applications folder right there and the menu changes.
I want to thank you and the PackRat for the patience, I had a against time with a family member but everything was solved and with success, even the system! hahaha…
Many thanks and all the best for everyone!!!